The Effects of High Level Natural Radiation in Mamuju - Indonesia on the Immune System of Its Residents

D Darlina, T. Rahardjo, H. N. E. Surniyantoro, N. Rahajeng, M. Syaifudin


The immune system is one of the most significant defenses against environmental insults including natural radiation. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the effects of high natural radiation to Mamuju residents, by focusing on immune-related blood cell counts (leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) level. The blood samples were collected from 18 adult residents in a high background radiation area (HBRA) while 18 residents in a normal background radiation area (NBRA) served as a control group. The blood components were measured by using the hematopoietic analyzer, and IgE immune biomarker was measured with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) according to standard protocols. The data showed that the level of all blood cells, except for monocytes, of residents in HBRA was higher than that of NBRA. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the blood cell counts and IgE level in both groups and their values were within normal limits. The level of IgE in HBRA was significantly higher than the control area (P≤0.05), as its IgE level in males compared to females in both residents. The relationship between IgE level and age were negative in these residents. From this study, it was concluded that long-term exposure to high radiation may affect the immune system as one of radiation adaptive response.


Immune response; IgE; Natural radiation; ELISA; Mamuju

Full Text:



E. D. Nugraha, M. Hosoda, Kusdiana et al., Sci. Rep. 11 (2021) 4159.

A. C. Geetha and H. Sreedharan, Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 3 (2016) 163.

F. Mubarak, M. Fayez-Hassan, N. A. Mansour, et al., Sci. Rep. 7 (2017) 15223.

I. Kurnia, D. Yusuf, T. Rahardjo et al., J. Environ. Radioact. 171 (2017) 212.

M. Syaifudin, S. Purnami, T. Rahardjo et al., Radiat. Environ. Med. 7 (2018) 65.

M. Syaifudin, V. Defiyandra, S. Nurhayati et al., Genome Integr. 9 (2018) 51.

Z. Alatas, Y. Lusiyanti, S. Purnami et al., J. Sains Teknol. Nuklir Indones. 13 (2012) 13.

D. Ramadhani, S. Nurhayati, T. Rahardjo et al., Indones. Biomed. J. 10 (2018) 66.

A. Vaiserman, A. Koliada and O. Zabuga, Dose Response 19 (2018) 27.

J. Cui, G. Yang, Z. Pan et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18 (2017) 280.

S. Borzoueisileh and A.S. Monfared, J. Babol Univ. Med. Sci. 17 (2015) 15.

K. Li, W. Li, Y. Jia et al., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 95 (2019) 764.

L. K. Vitzthum, E. S. Heide, H. Park et al., Front Oncol. 10 (2020) 1.

S. Shahid, N. Mahmood, M. N. Chaudhry et al., FUUAST J. Biol. 4 (2014) 135.

I. Gyuleva, J. Djounova and I. Rupova, Dose Response 16 (2018) 8.

H. N. E. Surniyantoro, T. Rahardjo, Y. Lusiyanti et al., Atom Indones. 45 (2019) 123.

H. M. Joo, E. H. Hong, S. Cho et al., Sci. Rep. 9 (2019) 8.

M. Ghiassi-nejad, F. Zakeri and R. G. Assaei, J. Environ. Radioact. 74 (2004) 107.

S. Shahid, M. N. Chaudhry, N. Mahmood et al., Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 24 (2015) 1783.

S. G. De-Simone, A. L. A. Souza, A. A. Aguiar et al., Toxicon 138 (2017) 37.

I. Rengganis, D. S. Rambe, C. M. Rumende et al., Med. J. Indones. 27 (2018) 279.

A. A. Akleyev, E. A. Blinova and I. I. Dolgushin, Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 58 (2019) 81.

Y. S. Kim, H. Y. Kim, H. S. Ahn et al., Intern. Med. 56 (2017) 2571.

R. Shepherd, A. S. Cheung, K. Pang et al., Front. Immunol. 11 (2021) 16.

E. J. Marquez, C. H. Chung, R. Marches et al., Nat. Commun. 11 (2020) 751.

N. Germic, Z. Frangez, S. Yousefi et al., Cell Death Differ. 26 (2019) 715.

H. El-Shanshoury, G. El-Shanshoury and A. Abaza, J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci. 9 (2016) 282.

X. Han, F. Sun, Y. Zhang et al., RSC Adv. 9 (2019) 36366.

K. Lumniczky, N. Impens, G. Armengol et al., Environ. Int. 149 (2021) 106212.

M. Elkuch, V. Greiff, C. T. Berger et al., Clin. Exp. Immunol. 187 (2017) 345.

H. M. Joo, S. J. Kang, S. Y. Nam et al., PLoS One 10 (2015) 16.

A. Schroder, S. Kriesen, G. Hildebrandt et al., Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20 (2019) 1.


Copyright (c) 2022 Atom Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.