Assessment of Levels of Occupational Exposure to UV-A and UV-C Radiation among Shielded Metal Arc Welders in Accra, Ghana

A. Sawyerr, J.J. Fletcher, J. Amoako, E. Sosu


This study attempted to quantify the irradiance levels of ultraviolet A (UV-A) and ultraviolet C (UV-C) from the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process to welders in Accra, Ghana. Exposures were assessed via measurements, observations, and interviews. The assessments were done based on safe exposure levels prescribed by recognized international organizations such as the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Results from the measured UV-C irradiance levels EUV-C ranged between 0.16 ± 0.08 W/m2 and 10.46 ± 1.96 W/m2 with its corresponding permissible exposure duration tmax‑UV‑C per day ranging from 5.74 s to 367.35 s. The measured UV-A irradiance levels EUV‑A ranged from 0.88 ± 0.03 W/m2 to 23.72 ± 6.66 W/m2 with its corresponding permissible exposure duration tmax‑UV‑A per day ranging from 421.59 s to     11,363.64 s. The obtained effective irradiance Eeff has a range of 2.08 W/m2 to 28.79 W/m2 with the range of permissible exposure duration tmax per day of 1.04 s to 14.40 s. It was found that the total exposure time of the welders exceeded the permissible exposure durations and that the safety practices among the welders were unsatisfactory.


Ultraviolet radiation; Radiant exposure; Non-ionizing radiation; Safety standards

Full Text:



E. Łastowiecka-Moras, J. Bugajska and B. Młynarczyk, Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. 20 (2014) 639.

E.S. Lee, S.Y. Park and S.D. Ha, Food Sci. Technol. Int. 22 (2016) 213.

H. Moshammer, S. Simic and D. Haluza, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13 (2016) 1041.

F. Wang, N.R. Smith, B.A.P. Tran et al., JAMA Dermatol. 150 (2014) 401.

J.C.S. Yam and A.K.H. Kwok, Int. Ophthalmol. 34 (2014) 383.

J.M. Herndon, R.D. Hoisington and M. Whiteside, J. Geography Environ. Earth Sci. Int. 14 (2018) 1.

S. Indini, Esposizione Occupazionale A Radiazioni Solari Ultraviolette E Carcinoma Cutaneo/ Occupational Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Skin Cancer, Updating Medicina Del Lavoro (2018).

S. Bauer, A. Barlier-Salsi, M. Borra et al., J. Phys. Commun. 2 (2018) 477.

A. Rybczyński, A. Wolska, M. Wisełka et al., Energies 12 (2019) 1.

E.A. Gyasi, P. Kah and J. Martikainen, International Journal of Development and Sustainability 3 (2014) 1782.

G. Dibowski and K. Esser, Saf. Health Work 8 (2017) 237.

D.H. Sliney, D.W. Gilbert II and T. Lyon, J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 13 (2016) 413.

SCHEER, Opinion on Biological effects of UV-C radiation relevant to health with particular reference to UV-C lamps. Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks, European Commission (2017).

Anonymous, UV254SD UVA and UVC Light Meter with Datalogging SD Card.

Retrieved in April (2015).

A. Possolo, Simple Guide for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results. NIST Technical Note 1900 (2015).

M. Masili, H. Schiabel and L. Ventura, Rad. Protec. Dos. 164 (2015) 435.

C.Y. Peng, H.H. Liu, C.P. Chang et al., Health Phys. 93 (2007) 101.


Copyright (c) 2020 Atom Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.